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The amount of time it takes food to travel through your dog depends on multiple factors. Factors like exercise also determine how long it takes for your dog to pass a bowel movement.
Digestive Time Variables
According to the American Kennel Club, the typical dog has one or two bowel movements every day. The amount of time between eating and passing a bowel movement depends on a variety of factors -- for example, some dogs digest wet food faster than dry kibbles, and can't "hold it" as long because their stools are looser. Dogs who eat high-fiber diets may have to go more quickly, as can those getting a lot of exercise. Generally, it takes between seven and 10 hours for a dog to digest food, but the many variables mean that only your vet can tell you how long it should be taking.